Cardano (ADA)


Staking mechanics

Stake activation time

5-10 days (end of current epoch and one other)

Stake lock-up time


Re-delegating activation time

5-10 days (end of current epoch and one other)

Rewards frequency

First rewards: 2 epochs after stake is active (5-10 days + 10 days). Rewards frequency: beginning of every epoch (5 days). Last rewards: 3 epochs after the end of the unstaking epoch (15-20 days)





Active set



No automated slashing currently implemented on Cardano.

Relationship between validator stake balance and rewards

Almost linear. The more stake balance there is on the validator, the more rewards it will earn.

Note that:

  • more a validator pldege, more rewards are received.

  • there is a saturation of 70M ADA. Above this amount of delegated tokens on the same validator, rewards are capped (not able to grow further).

Staking workflow

What is the staking process?

The ADA wallet is delegated to a pool id and all the tokens contained inside this wallet are staked on the pool. The rewards go to the stake address of your wallet and must be withdrawn to receive them on your wallet.

Do funds move out to another wallet?

No, ADAs never leave your wallet.

Basically you keep the assets on your ada wallet and receive rewards on the stake address of your wallet.

Can I keep staking/unstaking from/to the same wallet?

Yes, by transferring in and out tokens, you need to withdraw available rewards.

Can I select how much of my wallet balance I want to stake?

All the ADA inside a delegated wallet are staked. All tokens in a delegated wallet are taken into account in the staked amount.

Can I unstake part of the staked balance?

No, if you unstake it's the whole wallet. But you can transfer out of your wallet any amount of ADA to unstake a part of it.

How is my balance computed at epoch N for the rewards distribution?

The balance computed at epoch N for the rewards distribution is the balance at the beginning of epoch N-2.


How can I get testnet tokens?

You can request some here.


Kiln's pools can be monitored on CExplorer here:

For each pool you can see a detailed overview of the performance, notably recent & lifetime ROA:

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